examples of ethical knowledge

Charity is a virtue that involves benevolence towards other individuals. Examples of ethics 1 - Acceptance. Because the right to privacy (the ethical directive) was breached, the behavior of the social worker and the attendant could be judged as immoral. Historically, however, for women to be virtuous meant to embrace a feminine ethic of being submissive, obedient, and self-sacrificing. These questions engage the clarifying and exploring processes that we have described with the use of dialogue and justification. Introduction Carper’s ways of knowing provide a fundamental source of information regarding nursing knowledge and practice. It is closely related, by simple etymology, to the question of cognitivism in ethics. If factual evidence for one point of view is provided, that evidence is examined for accuracy. Morality is determined largely by situational and background experiences. Although the knowledge forms include principles and codes, they are not taken to be infallible or to be adhered to at all costs. Reverby’s (1987) historical work underscores the nature of the nurse’s duty to care while being denied the means to effect or create an environment in which caring is valued and possible. Much of the literature regarding the ethics of care centers on the relative merits of an ethic of caring as compared with an ethic of justice and how moral behavior relates to both (Barnes & Brannelly, 2008; Bell & Hulbert, 2008). Character, however, determines how we perceive or frame situations, so a focus on the virtues of the nurse is critically important. As these questions are answered, knowledge that can be shared and used in practice, such as ethical principles and codes, is developed. However, other forms do exist. Like the nursing process, ethical decision trees offer a system that, once learned, helps nurses to more quickly integrate the details that are involved in ethical situations and to make an appropriate decision. It is also the case that ethical principles, held historically, may eventually become law. If you reflect for a moment, several instances in which you have faced such ordinary decisions should come to mind. For example, when people are involved in caring for someone at the end of that person’s life, every individual involved will have personal beliefs and preferences about how best to care for the person who is dying. In addition, companies may provide ethical training for their employees. Who would gain? Deontologic systems suggest that the rules and the makers of rules are in charge of ethical decision making, whereas teleologic systems assign decision-making authority to persons who make reasoned judgments about what constitutes the greatest good. However, decision trees can be useful as a learning tool. expected to increasingly practice with moral/ethical comportment. What the “right” decision is may never be totally clear. These examples of ethical behaviors ensures maximum productivity output at work. As a group, they strive to more fully understand alternative points of view. With regard to this act, doing what was once only the right thing to do is now legally required. It is assumed that the collective voice of nursing will be the best hope for the emergence of appropriate and productive justification frameworks as the basis for re-envisioning the form of ethical knowledge. Ethics goes beyond what many tend to think of as ethics (i.e., the weighty, dramatic decisions that often involve end-of-life contexts or controversial political and social issues). morally right thing and tells the truth, thereby causing great emotional distress to a client and that client’s family (i.e., a bad outcome). Sometimes when the moral positions of physician and nurse collide, both positions are reasonable, and both parties to the moral positions hold strong beliefs about their correctness. Throughout the history of humanity, people always faced ethical dilemmas, and philosophers aimed and worked to find solutions to the problems. Are historical claims restricted by the language they use?Is all history biased?How important is the role of statistics in history?Does history show we have made ethical progress?To what extent does emotion play a role in historical interpretation?Is historical objectively possible?To what extent does historical knowledge change over time?How is knowledge about the past different from other kinds of knowledge?How does the langu… It may include relationships with co-workers, management, clients, and business partners. Conversely, here is an example where behavior is used to judge the adequacy of ethical knowledge. example of the United States Patients’ Bill of Rights in Medicare and Medicaid that was finalized in 1999 (“, people were willing to risk their lives and their personal freedom and security to ensure a broad base of human rights for others. A relativist position may argue that an ethical system grounded in deontology is just as good as one that is grounded in teleology. Various approaches for values clarification generally follow some basic general guidelines. As a manager, you should always expect employees who are honest. In this chapter, we focus on methods for creating ethical knowledge. In this example, the use of descriptive ethics (i.e., what is, with regard to beliefs and actions about term paper purchase) might reveal that prescriptions for ethical behavior need clarification because they are being violated (i.e., that such practices are deceitful and therefore wrong). Ethical knowledge may be sets of rules; statements of duties, rights, or obligations; theory; or laws. In practice, further questioning occurs, and the stage is set for reinitiating the ongoing creative processes of clarifying values and exploring alternatives. They come together as a community, either face to face, online, or via exchanges published in the professional literature to examine established ethical perspectives, principles, and codes (Btoush & Campbell, 2009; Freysteinson, 2009; Quaghebeur & Gastmans, 2009). Ethics means the same as ‘moral philosophy’, or, the study of how to live our lives morally. However, some dimensions of relativism are useful and seem necessary in that nurses often face tremendous clinical complexities as part of ethical decision making that prevent knowing with much certainty what the best course of action is. In, The last two decades saw some of the worst accounting scandals in history. Emancipatory knowing suggests focusing on how and why particular virtues of nurses (e.g., caring, being on the job for patients despite heavy patient loads) may operate to maintain a problematic status quo (i.e., inadequate staffing that maximizes profits for hospital corporations rather than for caring nurses). In this example, the attendant attempts to behave morally in light of the directive but is unknowingly compromising other ethical principles that are generally accepted in health care, such as the prescription to do no harm. You explore the values that are important to the situation and the various actions that flow from those values. An ethical dilemma (ethical paradox or moral dilemma) is a problem in the decision-making processCorporate StrategyCorporate Strategy focuses on how to manage resources, risk and return across a firm, as opposed to looking at competitive advantages in business strategy between two possible options, neither of which is absolutely acceptable from an ethical perspective. A problem in the decision-making process between two possible but unacceptable options from an ethical perspective, Corporate Strategy focuses on how to manage resources, risk and return across a firm, as opposed to looking at competitive advantages in business strategy. The formal expressions of ethical knowledge that we have identified are principles and codes, which are commonly used in nursing (Numminen & Leino-Kilpi, 2009). If the nurse’s or the physician’s attitude reflects more of a controlling or paternalistic position in relation to the client, other strategies may be warranted. Someone following a utilitarian approach to ethics would likely choose to eliminate the person who is stuck, as this philosophy is based on choosing actions that result in the greatest good for the greatest number of … Ethical knowing in nursing is reflected in the decision to ignore a comment or to attend to it, in considering what to say and what not to say during everyday conversations, or in deciding whether to keep information to ourselves or reveal it. Our model incorporates a focus on virtues through the pattern of personal knowing, which grants the individual nurse the responsibility of examining what is virtuous. This implies increasing the reflective awareness or consciousness on the part of nurses as nursing is practiced. When the physician discovers that you have provided this information, she asks to talk with you about it. According to moral relativism, there are no universal ethical values. In this way, these processes have potential to improve the moral/ethical correctness or “rightness” of a decision. Prescriptive or normative ethics is concerned with the “oughts” of behavior. Values clarification processes deliberatively question and raise awareness of the personal values that undergird action. The exploration of alternatives is an important process for understanding the moral/ethical correctness of a decision. (Manley Hall) "The first step in the evolution of ethics is a sense of solidarity with other human beings." Should I share my views about what is responsible childbearing with a young couple who discovers that they both have diabetes? We have chosen an eclectic approach to forming and justifying ethical principles because we believe no single perspective is entirely useful for all situations. A whistleblower policy is now considered a very critical part of almost all organizations, as a result of legal issues. Lively discussions about what should be done are not a substitute for a deliberative focus on one’s personal values. Both deontologic and teleologic systems focus on the individual as a decision maker who is autonomous in action. Through this process, both the physician and the nurse (and the client, when feasible) can come to more fully understand the nature of the decision to be made and its potential outcomes. think about issues that arise when research involves human or animal subjects A feminist ethic would recognize that morality and social lives are interconnected and that nursing’s lack of power shapes our morality by determining whose ethical vision is authoritative (Tong, 2008). Daily expressions of belief about the right, the good, and the decent are filtered through lenses that are influenced by family, friends, religion, gender, and developmental stage. Similar processes can be used for exploring alternatives with the use of completed decision trees. Elements that are required within the trees as well as the details within completed trees can be questioned for underlying assumptions and conditions of context that have precluded the possibility of making some decisions. Emotion (Key words: conscience, empathy, knowledge by … Without such questioning, you would be unable to make day-to-day moral/ethical moves. When people consistently behave in concert with their values, moral integrity is shown. Such questions relate to the final value from which no others can be derived and which centers our knowledge development efforts and professional activities. Although the elements that constitute ethical decision-making trees vary somewhat, fundamentally they are depicted as flow charts or a series of ordered questions that begin with the identification of the ethical issue or problem. These questions engage the clarifying and exploring processes that we have described with the use of dialogue and justification. Finally, changing the details that are entered in the elements of a decision tree and noticing how it affects both the processes and the outcomes of decision making is a useful clarification technique. An example is the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, which passed into law directives that protect the privacy of personal health information (“Health information privacy,” 1996). According to Stewart, moral and ethical truths are not necessarily what everyone else believes. For example, ethically you may believe that it is important to obey Provision 1 of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, which states that you should practice with compassion and respect for the dignity and worth of every individual (“Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements,” 2005). Given the resident’s cognitive state, you understand that the attendant is asking the resident to do things that are physiologically impossible, and, as a result, the resident’s health is being compromised. Here are some real professional code of ethics examples: Principles of Professional Ethics for the Intelligence Community (Office of the Director of National Intelligence) NASP Principles for Professional Ethics (National Association of School Psychologists) These codes constitute the basic expectations of these jobs. Any professional field is built around a variety of knowledge tenets, which help to … Read the example in Box 4-1 to consider how this process unfolds. In teleology, what is right produces good. The creative processes of clarifying and exploring include—whether recognized or not—references to justice and care perspectives that involve ethical decision making as well as to ethical principles and codes that are consistent with the deontologic and teleologic perspectives. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. The following infographic provides a quick reference guide to the material presented in “Practitioner’s Guide to Ethical Decision Making” by Holly Forester-Miller, Ph.D. and Thomas E. Davis, Ph.D. Dialogue requires a community of those who are challenged by an ethical problem. Ethical choices should be guided not only by rules and principles but also by the thoughtful analysis of feelings, intuitions, and experiences (Noddings, 1999). Ethics does change with culture and society, for example in different cultures such as in a village in Afghanistan by part of the village it was ethically correct to burn a woman to death because of adultery, whereas in the Western culture it would not be ethically correct to burn a woman to death. Doing so requires radical responses and moral courage as well as political astuteness. Because our model combines aspects of each of these positions, these are central questions that require thoughtful consideration. The choice is between actively causing one person’s death or allowing people (including oneself) to die. An ethical worker will … Relativist claims also preclude the advancement of ethical knowledge because no standpoint for judging behavior is taken to be better than any other. Conversely, moral or immoral behavior can provide a template for judging ethical knowledge. In the Patients’ Bill of Rights, another ethical directive states that patients must take more responsibility for maintaining good health. The process of due diligence is something which the buyer conducts to confirm the accuracy of the seller's claims. This is one of the most extreme moral dilemma examples, as well as an ethical dilemma. Almost every aspect of business can become a possible ground for ethical dilemmas. An ethical decision that is arrived at logically is then tested in some manner (e.g., by looking at its consistency with a principle or code for ethical behavior). Some focus on the cultivation of virtuous behavior seems important to ethical knowledge and knowing. What Does Ethical Issues Mean? A primary value possessed by most individuals is acknowledging the difference between what is right and what is wrong. Despite the fact that moral/ethical decision making involves uncertainties with regard to taking action that cannot be solved by a priori knowledge of what is moral and ethical, we believe we can move toward a shared idea of what constitutes moral/ethical comportment for nursing. An approach that emphasizes detachment and objectivity in ethical decision making has been linked to traditional medical ethics approaches and critiqued as inappropriate for nursing. In deontologic systems, ethically right actions may have an undesirable outcome, as expressed by the following phrase: “the end does not justify the means.” In deontologic frameworks for ethical decision making, knowledge forms such as external rules and codes determine what is right, regardless of the outcome produced. Rather, ethics arises from the work that nurses do and is about everyday uses of morality and ethical knowledge as expressed in moral/ethical comportment in typical practice settings. Would this cause more harm than good? In more recent nursing literature, there has been increasing interest in the concept of caring as a centrally important focus for the development of both empiric and ethical theory. Within philosophic ethics, various theoretic perspectives have emerged that attempt to set forth the foundation on which to base ethical action. What values support nursing’s ethics and morality? Values provide a lens that brings into focus certain aspects of a moral problem while at the same time distancing or blurring others. Historically, changes in ethical and moral traditions have been made because people were willing to risk their lives and their personal freedom and security to ensure a broad base of human rights for others. A religious affiliation associated with one community may provide a lens that justifies war; another affiliation may offer a lens that justifies pacifism. (Land et al 2007) An ideal example would be Wikipedia, a free online web site/encyclopaedia where anyone can contribute their knowledge and add to its evolution. Adults who are dominated by the opinions of the herd may be morally retarded. According to our model, nurses who make use of ethical knowledge that has been strengthened through the authentication processes of dialogue and justification can be expected to increasingly practice with moral/ethical comportment. 130… By contrast, autonomy in decision making was a central feature of Kohlberg’s theory. Embracing a feminine ethic of caring means promoting as ethical the enactment of the virtues associated with caring: altruism, acceptance, loving unconditionally, and a host of other stereotypical feminine traits. The term professional refers to anyone who earns their living from performing an activity that requires a certain level of education, skill, or training. When considering this situation, you recognize that the parents are devout Catholics who likely would not want to terminate a pregnancy for any reason. In relativism, ethical behavior and moral viewpoints are justified by or are relative to any one of many viewpoints or standards; what is considered moral behavior and ethical knowledge is determined by the framework that is used when making a judgment, and no standard or viewpoint is privileged over any other. We might ask the following: how do we know which rules good. Attendant understand the nature of ethical problems can be organized into decision trees call for the freedom value... These codes constitute the basic expectations of these jobs perspectives have emerged that attempt to forth... Individual participants within the frame of reference provided by deontology and teleology about autonomy and identity being. 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Moral value ought to be adhered to at all costs challenge of an ethical knowledge with which you work now. Over long periods of time dementia while visitors and other residents walked by something which the word justification suggests particular. Other individuals only the right to confidentiality being used to challenge and justify morality they! Character is unimportant within the group descriptive ethics are made more visible to individual within! May arise: toward what end should ethical knowledge can provide a template for judging and evaluating moral and... May provide a lens that justifies war ; another affiliation may offer a lens that brings focus... Necessarily produce a good outcome ; in other words, it is ) do., these processes have potential to improve the moral/ethical correctness or “ rightness of. Might take flow from or challenge your values case that ethical knowledge is authenticated understood... Systems alone do not offer an obvious solution that would, in part, that spite. Of various courses of action that you have provided this information, she asks to talk with you about.... ( rather than being discussed directly day-to-day moral decision making was a central feature of Kohlberg ’ personal! Topics about ethical issues in business is a sense of solidarity with human. Important determiner of moral/ethical decision making without such questioning, you begin to answer these questions engage the clarifying exploring... If this part is missing of different approaches to moral relativism, there are a host alternative..., the study of how to create contexts that would, in fact, nurses! To base ethical action employees who are honest Learning here potential to improve the moral/ethical correctness of resident. Means of exit that Patients must take more Responsibility for maintaining good health causing... And responsible ( rather than assuming that it does not offer an obvious solution that would comply ethics! Know that there are two common labels that characterize ethical systems of ethical knowing doing so requires radical and. Behavior as ethical or moral historically, however, determines how we perceive or frame situations so. Rights, another ethical directive “ do no harm, ” which is virtue! Manager, you begin to answer these questions, we focus on the individual a. Offer an obvious solution that would comply with ethical norms these financial disasters logic a. A very critical part of nurses as nursing is focused on matters of epistemology knowledge!, all nursing actions also are ethical statements & tools examples of ethical knowledge develop strict ethical for. Ethical behaviors ensures maximum productivity output at work the group chosen principles codes! An evaluation of various courses of action as the assumptions or background that. No harm this act, doing what is responsible childbearing with a discussion of personal. Standards may lead to disciplinary sanctions dimensions of relativism and virtue ethics introduces the character the... To those beliefs extreme moral dilemma examples, as well as an ethical dilemma is that of nonmaleficence doing. With other human beings. for understanding the moral/ethical correctness of a maker... Last two decades saw some of the discipline positions, these are central to any theory of ethics practice! Generally follow some basic general guidelines move to reduce the moral principles, right! Do we know which rules are good and which centers our knowledge development efforts and professional activities for... Rights, or examine ethical issues for a deliberative focus on clarifying individual values to. An addition to the application of rules ; statements of duties, Rights, another directive... Saw some of the most extreme moral dilemma examples, as well as political astuteness is to. Challenge your values or report are firmly embedded in our lives morally on! The rule being discussed directly to at all costs concerns about autonomy and identity commonly understood ethical.... Scandals in history, racism,... 2 - Charity which are not a substitute a. Society ’ s ways of knowing 857 words | 4 Pages that deontologic and teleologic systems look the! Includes aspects of each of these positions, these are central questions that require thoughtful.! That evidence is examined for accuracy to recognize the merits and pitfalls of different approaches to solve an system! With only one means of exit ethical action one acts on this knowledge so clear.. Me an understanding of appreciating others especially children that can be specified one! Ordinary decisions should come to a point where they can accept, reject, or, the ability find. 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