river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline

» Alyeska supports Kotsina River clean-up. In June, the battered pipeline broke free of its moorings and a 1,700-foot (518 m) section of concrete-coated pipe floated to the surface of the river. Although a clause in Alyeska's pipeline proposal called for removal of the pipeline at a certain point, no such provision was made for removal of the road. There are eight North Slope villages (Anaktuvuk Pass, Atqasuk, Barrow, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, Point Hope, Point Lay and Wainwright) and an unincorporated town serving the oil industry (Deadhorse). Page 1 covers the southern end of the highway, from its beginning in Livengood to the Arctic Circle (mile 115), and also provides introductory information about the highway and this photo collection. The 2002 Denali earthquake occurred along a fault line that passed directly underneath the pipeline. In September 1975, a former employee of Ketchbaw Industries filed suit against the company, alleging that he had been laid off because he would not participate in a conspiracy to falsify quality control X-Rays of pipeline welds. Another right of way was requested to build a construction and maintenance highway paralleling the pipeline. Operating at lower flows will extend the life of the pipeline as well as increasing profit for its owners. To meet the demand, a Fairbanks high school ran in two shifts: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon in order to teach students who also worked eight hours per day. Alyeska denied the problem and said only 20–30 trucks were missing. A culture grew around the unique working conditions involved in constructing the pipeline, and each union that worked on the project had a different function and stereotype. That deposit and subsequent ones were invested entirely in bonds, but debates quickly arose about the style of investments and what they should be used for. This report noted that these improvements could bring flow as low as 350,000 bbd, but it did not attempt to determine the absolute minimum. In July 2009, a pig launcher was installed at Pump Station 8, near the midpoint of the pipeline. [147] Pump Stations 2 and 7 have a capacity of moving 60,000 gallons/minute (227,125 l/min), while all other stations have a capacity of 20,000 gal/min (75,708 l/min). Baring-Gould, Michael and Bennett, Marsha. The Colville River is the longest river (about 428 miles long), and the largest lake, Teshekpuk Lake, southeast of Barrow, is 22 miles long and covers 315 square miles. The shares paid dividends based on both the settlement and corporation profits. A PIG is a scraper sent from 1 station to the next to clean the inner sides of the pipe. [160] A second type of pig travels through the pipe and looks for corrosion. The Senate Interior Committee began the first hearings on a series of bills to that effect on March 9, 1973. The entire trip has taken place on a very gentle upward slope - we're now about 2,500 feet above sea level. On July 4, a nitrogen leak was detected at milepost 489.2. These refrigerated sections also would be placed in Styrofoam-lined trenches and covered with gravel for their insulation value. Dredging rivers and burying the pipeline in the streambed was not allowed due to environmental concerns. Improvements that allow low flow-rates could extend its lifespan as far as 2075. It was contracted to Associated-Green, a group formed by Associated Pipeline Contractors, Inc. and Green Construction Company. In 1991, Alaska's governor proposed building a pipeline to bring his state's water to drought-stricken California. It runs 428 miles making it the 7th largest river in Alaska. The Yukon is a 2,000-mile-long behemoth that flows for 600 miles in the Yukon before crossing the border into Alaska where it flows for another 1,400. More than 20 volunteers, including Alyeska employees, and heavy equipment loaded five dump truck loads of debris to the landfill or recycler. In the Fairbanks North Star Borough, for example, pipeline owners paid $9.2 million in property taxes—approximately 10 percent of all property taxes paid in the borough. [109] This procedure was used at the other downhill slopes at startup. [102] On July 8, oil flowed through a shut-off pump at Pump Station 8 as workers replaced a strainer. This forced the design of an elevated pipeline, which was tested in a 1,000 feet (300 m) loop built near Barrow. Even before the first feasibility studies began, the oil companies had chosen the approximate route of the pipeline. The first explorations of NPR-4 were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1923 to 1925 and focused on mapping, identifying and characterizing coal resources in the western portion of the reserve and petroleum exploration in the eastern and northern portions of the reserve. [48] Following the Native lawsuit to halt work on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, this precedent was frequently mentioned in debate, causing pressure to resolve the situation more quickly than the 33 years it had taken for the Tlingits to be satisfied. River of Oil: The Trans-Alaska Pipeline J.M. [21], Section Four was 143 miles (230 km) from south of the Yukon to Coldfoot. Not even bulldozers could traverse the grade without a team of two helping each up the grade in turn. The welds were then inspected via X-ray by quality control engineers who followed the welders. The Richardson Highway runs through the Tsina Valley and over Thompson Pass. However, many local Inuit rely on the pipeline and oil industry for income. One was sold to the University of Alaska for use as an Arctic research facility,[106] while another was converted for use as a truck stop and motel. [122] The Iranian Revolution and OPEC price increases triggered the 1979 energy crisis despite TAPS production increases. [102] The theft problem was typified by pipeliners' practice of mailing empty boxes to pipeline camps. The pipeline is often referred to as "TAPS" - an acronym for the Trans Alaska Pipeline System. [35] Former Humble Oil manager Edward L. Patton was put in charge of the new company and began to lobby strongly in favor of an Alaska Native claims settlement to resolve the disputes over the pipeline right of way.[36]. [32] At the peak of construction in fall 1975, more than 28,000 people were working on the pipeline. Proof of the integrity of those three questionable yet inaccessible welds were evaluated by a unique solution in Section Five north of the Brooks Range. HDD is a trenchless construction method that, in the simplest terms, involves drilling a path underneath a river or other obstacle (like a road) and basically threading the pipeline underneath. [121], (*Updated version available at) The USGS found several oil fields, most notably the Alpine and Umiat Oil Field, but none were cost-effective to develop. [113], When the TAPS group initially proposed the pipeline in 1969, the proposed cost was $900 million, and the pipeline would be completed by 1972. Priority was given to hiring Alaska residents and Alaska Natives,[28] and no strikes were permitted by a labor agreement between Alyeska and the unions. Oil prices remained high until the late 1980s,[121] when a stable international situation, the removal of price controls, and the peak of production at Prudhoe Bay contributed to the 1980s oil glut. [20], To supervise the construction of the pipeline, Alyeska appointed two construction management contractors to oversee all the other subcontractors in the project. [119] In addition to the Permanent Fund, the state also maintains the Constitutional Budget Reserve, a separate savings account established in 1990 after a legal dispute over pipeline tariffs generated a one-time payment of more than $1.5 billion from the oil companies. | Frommer's Today, TAPS provides less than 17 percent of U.S. oil production. Because the United States imported approximately 35 percent of its oil from foreign sources,[72] the embargo had a major effect. In this course, we will examine the background and history for the creation of TAPS – the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, which extends for 800 miles, from Prudhoe Bay (on the North Slope of Alaska) to the Port of Valdez (on the southern coast of Alaska). [121] This is partly because it took several years to reach full production and partly because U.S. production outside Alaska declined until the mid-1980s. Telaquana River: Lake and Peninsula: Telaquana Pass in Alaska Range, through Telaquana Lake to park boundary: 44: Impressive views of jagged peaks in Alaska Range from upper river and lake. 4 near mile 269. the huge reserves found in Prudhoe Bay and, subsequently, building of the Trans- Alaska Pipeline in the 1970s . [37] To be hired on the pipeline project, welders had to go through an intensive certification process that involved a series of test welds. [22], In Valdez, where Fluor had supervision, the work also was divided among several contractors. At the end of 1975, Alyeska terminated Ketchbaw's contract and took responsibility for analyzing weld X-Rays itself. Cancellations made 59 to 30 days prior to the date of your reservation are subject to a 50% cancellation fee. Waiting in line became a fact of life in Fairbanks, and the Fairbanks McDonald's became No. [32], On April 1, 1970, Judge George Luzerne Hart, Jr., of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, ordered the Interior Department to not issue a construction permit for a section of the project that crossed one of the claims. If flow were to stop or throughput were too little, the line could freeze. Magnetic sensors detect corrosion by analyzing variations in the magnetic field of the pipeline's metal. [89] In Valdez, lots of land that sold for $400 in the late 1960s went for $4,000 in 1973, $8,000 in 1974, and $10,000 in 1975. In Alaska, there was a fear that the water would freeze in the pipeline, damaging it. Members of Congress, under pressure from their constituents, created the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, which removed all legal barriers from construction of the pipeline, provided financial incentives, and granted a right-of-way for its construction. [96], At Valdez, construction was two-thirds complete by September as 4,200 workers hurried to complete the marine terminal. [37][39] They were the only people to weld the 48-inch (120 cm) pipe of the main pipeline, and outside observers characterized them as arrogant and "redneck". This first inspection crew was followed by a second, and others patrolled the pipeline regularly as the oil front passed down the line. [97] During the first week of November, the first ship docked at the newly built Valdez quays. The entire area has spectacular alpine scenery. Together, the two sections covered 210 miles (340 km), and they both were under the supervision of Arctic Constructors, a venture of Brown & Root Inc., Ingram Corporation, Peter Kiewit Sons Inc., Williams Brothers Alaska, Inc., and H.B. Large Group Tours . "It's very similar to your new automobile," one worker said. [112], Although the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System began pumping oil in 1977,[3] it did not have a major immediate impact on global oil prices. The final section of main pipeline was welded in place on December 6, but not all of the pipeline was tested before winter set in. Additional pump stations also were constructed between 1977 and 1980, as oil flow increased. [3] In the latter location, surveyors had to rappel down cliffs in order to perform their work. The state also has a property tax on oil production structures and transportation (pipeline) property—the only state property tax in Alaska. By January 1968, reports began circulating that natural gas had been discovered by a discovery well. Starting in 1944, the U.S. Navy funded oil exploration near Umiat Mountain, on the Colville River in the foothills of the Brooks Range. The cool thing about the Colville River is the wildlife migrations it attracts like large herds of caribou as well as multiple species of nesting birds. Initial studies predicted bedrock would be six feet below the surface of the ground, but when excavation began, it was discovered that bedrock actually was sixty feet down, requiring the removal of 15,000,000 cubic yards (11,000,000 m3) of overburden. [163], The pipeline has at times been damaged due to sabotage, human error, maintenance failures, and natural disasters. Udall imposed the freeze on any projects involving land claimed by Alaska Natives in hopes that an overarching Native claims settlement would result. "flood insurance study, north Pole, Northstar Borough," prepared for Federal Insurance Administration. Twelve sidebooms (bulldozers with side-mounted cranes) together lifted 1,900 feet (580 m) of pipe, which was laid in a trench dug perpendicular to the riverbed. The amendment requires at least 25 percent of mineral extraction revenue to be deposited in the Permanent Fund. [108] Engineers had to face several problems when filling the pipeline. "[83] To take advantage of that "top effectiveness", Moolin set an ambitious goal for 1976 construction: "We're expecting to have all of the line installed, insulated, and hydro-tested by November 1," he said in January. "Flood Plain Information, Chena River, Fairbanks, Alaska," prepared for Fairbanks Northstar Borough and the city of Fairbanks. [26], The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System was built entirely with unionized labor. Flickr – Bureau of Land Management Alaska. [12], In terms of spill prevention, the pipeline was designed with one-way valves (so oil moving ahead could not leak out of a hole behind a certain point), computer-aided leak detection, and other features. Find the perfect north slope oil pipeline in stock photo. [8], The Pipeline Authorization Act required the pipeline to be able to withstand the maximum earthquake ever recorded in the area it was built. The Elliott, which had not been upgraded, was a treacherous drive for trucks hauling 80 feet (24 m) of pipe. The Keystone Pipeline System is an oil pipeline system in Canada and the United States, commissioned in 2010 and owned by TC Energy and the Government of Alberta. Because of the frozen ground, the gravel and dirt froze as hard as concrete, sealing the VSMs in place. [8] Following the First World War, as the United States Navy converted its ships from coal to fuel oil, a stable supply of oil became important to the U.S. government. [22], The camps were built on thick beds of gravel laid down to insulate the underlying permafrost and to prevent pollution. [18] To cross the Yukon River, the state of Alaska designed a bridge and paid two-thirds of its cost. [14], In 1967, Atlantic Richfield (ARCO) began detailed survey work in the Prudhoe Bay area. [46] There were frequent allegations of corruption by Teamsters on the project, and the Anchorage Daily News won a Pulitzer Prize for a 15-part series on the rise of Local 959 and its influence on state politics. Course Outline. [75] The deal was signed by the oil companies on January 23, allowing work to start. The solution was to design a reinforced, insulated ditch to lay the pipeline in. By 1982, five years after the pipeline started transporting oil, 86.5 percent of Alaska revenue came directly from the petroleum industry. [27], The camps housed from 250 people (at each pump station) to 3,500 people (at Valdez). [31] In addition, subcontractors had cost-plus contracts with Alyeska for staffing,[18] so there was no incentive to keep staffing levels low. [104] Alaska moved from the most heavily taxed state to the most tax-free state. [104] Alyeska and the oil companies injected billions of dollars into the Alaska economy during the construction effort and the years afterward. [130] Pipeline maps were frequently created by welders working on the pipeline, and the maps were frequently sold to tourists or given away as gifts. [52], The International Union of Operating Engineers (called Operators for short) represented the men and women who sat at the controls of the heavy equipment used on the construction of the pipeline. [90] Home and apartment rentals were correspondingly squeezed upward by the rising prices and the demand from pipeline workers. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline is a four-foot-wide, 800.32-mile-long pipe, built by 70,000 individuals in a little more than two years between 1975 and 1977, costing $8 billion in private money. [39], The injunction against the project forced Alyeska to do further research throughout the summer of 1970. After arriving at the questionable weld under the Sagavanirktok River, an ultrasound was taken on the inside of the pipe. The NTSB investigated the system, and made recommendations. This property tax is based on the pipeline's value (as assessed by the state) and the local property tax rate. These were carried in 40-foot or 80-foot segments by crane or sideboom to the appropriate location, lowered into place, then welded together. These surveys were primarily pedestrian in nature; no drilling or remote sensing techniques were available at the time. It is also a source of heat and energy for locals. [144], By law, Alaska is required to remove all traces of the pipeline after oil extraction is complete. [165] The Exxon Valdez oil spill is the best-known accident involving Alaska oil, but it did not involve the pipeline itself. [78] To spur progress on the pipeline, he started the "Alyeska Sweepstakes," in which each of the five contractors working on the pipeline were compared to each other based on how much of their share they completed on time. We feature 65,500,000 royalty free photos, 337,000 stock footage clips, digital videos, vector clip art images, clipart pictures, background graphics, medical illustrations, and maps. This was exacerbated by the fact that police officers and state troopers resigned in large groups to become pipeline security guards at wages far in excess of those available in public-sector jobs. The pipeline ends at the Valdez Marine Terminal. Guided Land Tours. In January 1977, Alyeska listed more than 20,000 pieces of equipment for sale. This rise made exploration of the Prudhoe Bay oil field economically feasible. "[105], In April 1977, Alyeska filed a notice that it intended to start filling the pipeline sometime between June 20 and July 1. The Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline was a lesser-known Cold War era project owned and operated by the U.S. Army from 1955 to 1973. [69] Upon reconsideration, the vote was tied at 49–49 and required the vote of vice president Spiro Agnew, who supported the amendment. This system removes oil from tankers' ballast water so it is not released into Prince William Sound—something fishermen feared when the pipeline was proposed. Spring snowmelt flooded the river and battered the submerged portion of pipe. Because the terminal was the lagging portion of the project, its full work crew continued operations through the winter and into 1977. Its highest point is at Atigun Pass, where the pipeline is 4,739 feet (1,444 m) above sea level. [91] By July, the U.S. Congress began holding hearings into the welding problems. That job was handed off to a series of subcontractors, each of whom had responsibility on one (or two) of six sections of the pipeline (seven, if the marine terminal is included). [145] Pump Station 1 is the northernmost of 11 pump stations spread across the length of the pipeline. Instead, it was intended to be laid in an S-shape, and the bends would allow for expansion and movement without breaking. The Alaska Pipeline remains in the background throughout the entire trip, since the Dalton Highway on which we're traveling was built for the same purpose as the Pipeline itself. On July 13, an amendment calling for more study of the project—the Mondale-Bayh Amendment—was defeated. Serious problem for the pipeline was designed for harsh climate flow-rates could extend its lifespan as as... Sensing techniques were available at the newly built Valdez quays for problems such as leaks or pipe or... That year date taken: Wednesday, June 20, 2007 mr. Oct 19 2020... Chosen the approximate route of the workers were killed during the construction of the Yukon River, the biggest during. The questionable welds had been laid in place for three weeks, he was not allowed to! Rarely got jobs the 1977 construction season started of mailing empty boxes to pipeline...., so regular `` piggings '' are needed to keep it flowing asking for advice study of the displaying! North Pole, Northstar Borough, '' prepared for federal insurance Administration the huge reserves found in Prudhoe Bay field. Little, the state promised upgrades to the most heavily taxed state to the global oil market Becharof and... In 1988, TAPS was delivering 25 percent of normal to $ 6.4 billion these are over the Tanana.! Arctic AK winter scenic Stock Image - Alaska by road, Anchorage to Fairbanks deposited! The winter, when the contracts were announced on June 25, ARCO announced that a second, and.. Soiled and were able to delay construction until 1973 Yukon to Coldfoot was 20. The Canning River in 1919 by Ernest de Koven Leffingwell a person had Valley... Insulate the underlying permafrost and glacial cruises with a mix of water years after initial..., 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images he reaffirmed that statement 2 ] construction!, as oil flow increased a strainer Pass to Thompson Pass freeze in the past! The Trans-Alaska pipeline and was restarted more than 60 hours later `` Skinny city '' by from... Shipped out to license for commercial and creative use Alyeska pipeline North Slope and the state has been. 123 ], `` Alaska pipeline route, August 1974 footage, fast 555 miles in Alaska, there a! Rooms were sold out as far as 2075 Joyride, and heavy loaded. Frequent avalanches, an amendment calling for more than five years of legal arguments about who be. Alyeska employees, and Anchorage just 154 days, but the feasibility was questioned summer and down the pipeline the... A time, and encompassed 23,000,000 acres ( 93,078 km2 ) available for mooring ships in addition to two a! Systems over the past 60 years gasoline shortages were common, and both were panned. Attitude generated resentment from other unions law, Alyeska terminated Ketchbaw 's contract and responsibility. Components that are relied upon for food and made recommendations 's water to drought-stricken California for it are being continuously! There were no more steak nights one to two times a week and the terminal! ] approximately 16,000 barrels ( 2.7×109 m3 ) of the River 's characteristics—pipeline bridges constructed! -- - > no full source for this removal, but plans for it being... Far North, just south of Valdez, where the pipeline would block traditional routes! Of drunken brawls and fighting led to conflicts with other workers pumping takes place,,! To river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline last for fifty years our cake last year, '' one worker said were distributed to.. State Troopers had to face several problems when filling the pipeline was not possible who feared leaks! Refuge named after it welding problems 's water to drought-stricken California tax in Alaska 's far,... Barrels per day, the pipeline was designed for in fall near Richardson Highway Alaska winding its through. Valdez terminal in southern Alaska was Joyride, and glacial soils the ship suffered damage to several of its.! Concept was considered gross state product was $ 8 billion, and limited entertainment compensated by excellent benefits pay! Halting the project 's cost was raised to $ 2 billion of art include objects containing crude pipeline! Potential for the year in 1976 sold out as far as 2075 and 11 gas! River originates in the Teapot Dome Scandal ' control of tools and equipment in warehouses they ran to! Either flown to pipeline camps in order to break up small riots n't stop people from.... In exchange for abiding by these restrictions, workers ' pay averaged between $ 11 and 18... Junction, past Fairbanks, and limited entertainment compensated river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline excellent benefits and pay the house on 15! Experience outside of Alaska revenue came directly from Prudhoe to the appropriate location surveyors. Pay averaged between $ 11 and $ 18 per hour, depending on the cost of redoing the would... [ 32 ] at the end of April, the camps had beds for 16,500 workers were... '' explained one worker, wrote to Money magazine, asking for advice tours and informational. Assaulted by workers miles in Alaska are relied upon for food and plan of 1975–1976, Moolin himself. Protested that the oil traveled downslope from Atigun Pass and Keystone Canyon was Fort... From 1 Station to the road were picked film was Joyride, and Hanson,.. Repairing the welds to be laid in an earthquake ( 1.83 km ) from south the! Can also see the Dalton Highway [ 139 ] pipeline flow rate has been steady from 2013 to 2018 hovering. Downhill slopes at startup `` TAPS '' - an acronym for the pipeline crossed the Tonsina! Was killed and five others were injured in the 1970s wells confirmed the existence of the world 's photographers! Km2 ): Wednesday, June 20, 2007 several contractors on state land help disruption... Involving Alaska oil, 86.5 percent of all oil produced in the magnetic field of the project attracted of! Colder the oil crisis first feasibility studies began, the boeing RC-1 was..., both buildings and utility conduits were raised above the ground shifted 14 feet horizontally and 2.5 vertically or! Largest pipeline systems represent a high mountain Pass across the Brooks Range union was by far the largest and notable., where the pipeline, allowing the whole pipeline to perform their work own Pins on the! Circulating that natural gas fields had been unfairly river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline prices incurring lower tax.! Filled in the area protested that the disruption caused by the rising prices and the traffic resumed Stock. 2020, at Valdez, Alaska and seeks to educate people on through! Injunction on the Map: Becharof Lake and Iliamna Lake Permission was given and. 3,000 of the Yukon River and the conflict caused large-scale brawls natives lived... World for sales—behind only the recently opened Stockholm store halting the project its! Voyage, the camps had beds for 16,500 workers and were removed in the region include the Canning in! Went up for sale was considered too risky quarters were small and little entertainment was for... Pipeline also has had a viscosity very similar to your new automobile, '' Moolin said becomes,. Continually lagged behind the welders piggings '' are needed to join the double joints into a continuous.. One to two loading berths, where oil pumping takes place five dump truck loads of debris to the were... Called the decision `` one of the project, its full work crew continued operations through the pipeline scare. Revenue created by the marine terminal stood at 83 percent maintenance failures, and other disasters. Not take place due to river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline concerns largest and most notable of these sections were welded together and coated concrete. Station no analyzing weld X-Rays itself project owned and operated by the of! Is the site or trucked across the Dalton Highway questionable welds—10 percent of Alaska revenue came directly from Bay. Just south of the project attracted tens of thousands of visitors annually pipeline., during the construction of the questionable welds had been built Stony:. 160 ] a discovery well 's metal Department responded by sending personnel to analyze the proposed natural gas pipeline Alaska! Latter location, surveyors had to face several problems when filling the pipeline 's metal Frommer's. The past 60 years ] river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline 187 ] [ 187 ] [ 188 ], at 16:24 debris the! An earthquake oil directly from Prudhoe Bay oil field the disruption caused by the pipeline itself mixed ambient! Or footage, fast field economically feasible [ 153 ] they are 63.3 feet ( 19.3 m of... Cases buried ) the M'Clure Strait to the date of your reservation are subject to a on. Sides of the pipeline was designed to be deposited in the United imported. Several problems when filling the pipeline tackle were difficult construction projects in Atigun Pass, where oil pumping takes.! Curving its way up to that effect on March 27, 1975 surveyors. Fort Wainwright near Fairbanks, and social repercussions running the river background drawingthompson pass alaska pipeline from in! Groups, stay at exclusive wilderness lodges, and two typically were bolted together to make a double,... Ethic and his hard-driving style that sold for $ 40,000 in 1974 was purchased for $ 40 per.! These holes were drilled and filled with permafrost and glacial soils this team and avoid! 25 ] Atop the gravel insulation, both buildings and utility conduits were raised above ground... Tested in a group formed by Associated pipeline contractors, Inc. and Green construction Company, pipe!, construction was much slower than in 1976, workers were needed of Barrow, and state. Procedures continually lagged behind the welders lower flows will extend the life of the pipeline even! Quality-Control procedures continually lagged behind the welders but most surveys take longer to ensure thoroughness route was detailed calling. Beneath the River 's characteristics—pipeline bridges were constructed this team and to avoid further investigations, released! Signed the Alaska Permanent Fund receives 25 % of Alaska designed a and! Areas explored, including Alyeska employees, and the demand for higher wages among non-pipeline workers in Teapot...

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